Que nous enseigne-t-elle aujourd hui? Časopis Međunarodnog istraživačkog centra za arheologiju, Pula Hrvatski znanstveni zbornik, Zagreb Izdanja Hrvatskog arheološkog društva: sv.
Anarhi - Part 1 by Ahmed Iqbal
Series Graeca, Paris Patrologiae cursus completus. It suffered several dislocations from its formation around the first century AD to its disappearance around the third century ADwhich determined the change of the ethnical, social structure, or even of the number of individuals.
The history of the unit was inherently related to the military history of the Roman Empire during the Principate, as the moments of crisis also affected the existence of this unit. Cuvinte-cheie: auxilia romane, ala Tampiana, pannoni, mobilitate Rezumat: Ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana a reprezentat una dintre unităţile auxiliare romane constituite din etnici pannoni din spaţiul dunărean.
De la formare aproximativ secolul I a. Istoria unităţii se leagă, inerent, de istoria militară a Imperiului Roman în timpul Principatului, momentele de criză afectând şi existenţa acestei unităţi. In the following lines, we will be referring to a cavalry unit made of Pannonians Celto-Illyrian populations within the Balkan space 2 : ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana.
Through military diplomas and stone inscriptions, we will only study the troop mobility quartering, dislocation for this unit. As regards the moment when the unit was formed, we assume it occurred during the reign of Augustus or, at the latest, after Tiberius put an end to the Pannonian rebellion AD 9 3. Nevertheless, certain historians believe that this auxiliary troop was founded at the very end of the civil wars approximately BC 4.
Nonetheless, taking into account that, at the beginning of the Principate, there were several cavalry units named prima Pannoniorum 5, we suppose that ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana was founded a little later possibly at the middle of the first century AD. There are two possibilities: either it existed in parallel with other alae I Pannoniorum, and then it received the surname of Tampiana, or it was founded, as in the case of the Gemina legions, by merging two ala I Pannoniorum units, which had only few Senza?
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ia la Dredge pe site- ul de dating left at a certain point. Nonetheless, we are sure that, at the beginning, it was a quingenaria with around militariesand that it became a milliaria circa individuals during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. A proof is the career of Vehilius Gratus Iulianus during the second half of the second century, which we will analyze in the following pages.
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First, he passed through tres militiae to lead an ala milliaria meaning militia quarta praefectus cohortis quingenariae tribunus cohortis milliariae praefectus alae quingenariae, before being appointed at the command of ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana, meaning praefectus alae milliariae 6. We will also analyse the origin of the title Tampiana that this troop received. Many historians support the hypothesis that this unit had taken this title from its commander at the middle of the first cen- 2 Plin.
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After the conflict ended and Vespasian became emperor, Tampius held the post of curator aquarum, received ornamenta triumphalia, and he was appointed consul, for the support given to Vespasian in the conflict that led to him becoming emperor. We believe that, when he was legatus Augusti pro praetore in Pannonia, he restored or completed the size of this unit, which was given the title of Tampiana in his honour. An inscription reminds both the functions of Tampius Flavianus part of them have already been mentioned, and the transfer of populations at the Danube, by Tiberius Plautius Silvanus Aelianus in Moesia 8, as well as by Tampius Flavianus in Pannonia 9.
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We believe it was then when Vespasian founded this unit maybe to complete the detachments that had supported him during the Dating gratuit pe Lyon waror when another ala prima Pannoniorum took the surname of Tampiana.
Other historians believe that the title of Tampiana came from a locality in northern Britain, still unidentified on the field, called Tampium, and mentioned in a letter of ADbelonging to Tiberius Claudius Paulinus, the governor of Lower Britain However, this fact does not explain why the unit had received this title before arriving to that province we will underline the sources confirming it below.
Even though rather contested, this auxiliary unit would have received the title of Tampiana after Lucius Tampius Flavianus.
A proof in this sense is the mention in documents of another ala I Pannoniorum, which took over the surname of Sabiniana from its commander, Caius Nymphidius Sabinus Military diplomas represent the most certain sources for the presence of an auxiliary unit in one province or another, as well as for 7 Tacit. The first military diploma mentioning this unit dates of ADin Malpas CheshireSenza?
ia la Dredge pe site- ul de dating province of Britain there is a theory that, during this period, ala Pannoniorum Tampiana would have been stationed in Wales or somewhere in the south-east of the island That source proves the presence of the unit in the province of Britain and mentions the names of two militaries within this troop: Caius Valerius Celsus, praefectus and Reburrus Severus f. Hispanus, decurio By now, we do not know of any military diploma to attest the presence of this ala in Pannonia or in another Danubian province until This fact may lead to two hypotheses.
The first is that ala Tampiana was in Pannonia around AD 90, the unit being part of the vexilations sent to Britannia around the civil war of ADmaybe while the island was being conquered, and then it returned to Britain, where it was mentioned in the diploma of AD The second is that this unit remained in Britain, and Flavius Cre n scens had been demobilised and had retired to Pannonia. The military had received citizenship during the reign of an emperor belonging to the Flavian dynasty, after serving only 15 years in the army, because of his courage in battle For the end of the first century AD, there are two other militaries within this unit, attested not in Britain, but in the province of Noricum: Pudentius Maximinus, veteranus, ex decurio, at Iuvavum Salzburg 17, and Titus Flavius Victorinus, veteranus, ex decurio, at Ovilava Kremsmunster This fact outlines two hypotheses.
Holder, op. The second is that the two soldiers returned to their native province to start a family or from other reasons, with the status of veterans being in their advantage.
We tend to support the following situation: the two veterans, Pudentius Maximinus and Titus Flavius Victorinus, did not return alone on the Danubian limes sometime at the end of the first century AD, but together with ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana.
Indirectly, the two epigraphic sources attest this unit in the province of Pannonia. The first is the abovementioned funerary inscriptions, where Flavius Cre n scens is present at Carnuntum around AD Pannonius, ex sesquipliciarius The military diploma was discovered at Brigetio Komarom and it demonstrates that Gemellus would have been recruited in AD 97, when ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana was still in Pannonia, and that he had not been sent from the Danubian province far away, in Britain In addition, in ADthe military was demobilised and he returned to his home place.
This fact rejects the continuous presence of the unit in Britain during the period ADunderlining frequent dislocations in this interval, according to the rather active military situation within the Empire.
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We refer here to the civil wars of ADto the wars with the Jews, to the Danubian conflicts with the Germanic populations, to the rebellions in Britain, etc. Another epigraphic source mentions ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana with the additional title of Victrix, but the military diploma was discovered at Faviana Mautern an der Donauthe province of Noricum 21, not in Britain.
The source dates of ADmeaning ten years after the diploma attesting the presence of this unit on the island. At Senza? ia la Dredge pe site- ul de dating same time, we have taken into account a votive inscription of the second century, mentioning Caius Domitius Montanus Septimius Annius Romanus, praefectus and Castricius Sabinus, duplicarius 23, both of ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana Victrix.